Nurses play a vital role in thromboprophylaxis
Nurses are crucial to patient
safety and patient outcomes throughout the continuum of care. For patients
at risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), they are literally the first line of defense. DVT prophylaxis has
been cited as the single best strategy to reduce the risk of DVT in hospitals. Yet
studies have found that overall compliance with quality measures and guidelines
needs to improve.
"To close the gap that exists between evidence-based guidelines and reported prophylaxis
patterns in current clinical practice, it is essential that all healthcare professionals
understand the risk factors for VTE [venous thromboembolism] development, consistently identify patients
who are at risk, and take the necessary steps to reduce that risk."
— Guidelines from the Case Management Society of America (CMSA) for improving
patient adherence to DVT medication therapies
Web sites page offers access to a wide variety of Web sites with additional information
on DVT, PE, ACS, and related topics.
Find ways to improve patient compliance and safety in DVT Case Management.
Continuum of Care
provides a resource to help with the safe transition of care from admission, through
hospitalization and follow-up care.
Important Safety Information for LOVENOX®
WARNING: SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA
Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients who are anticoagulated with low
molecular weight heparins (LMWH) or heparinoids and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia
or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent
paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures.
Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in
these patients include:
- Use of indwelling epidural catheters
- Concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants
- A history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures
- A history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery
Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If
neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment
Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated
or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- LOVENOX® (enoxaparin sodium injection) is contraindicated in patients
with active major bleeding; thrombocytopenia with a positive in vitro test
for anti-platelet antibody in the presence of enoxaparin sodium; known hypersensitivity
to enoxaparin sodium, heparin, pork products, or benzyl alcohol (multi-dose formulation
- LOVENOX® should be used with extreme caution in conditions with increased
risk of hemorrhage. Major hemorrhages including retroperitoneal and intracranial
bleeding have been reported. Some of these cases have been fatal. Bleeding can occur
at any site during LOVENOX® therapy.
fall in hematocrit (HCT) or blood pressure should lead to a search for a bleeding
- For percutaneous coronary revascularization procedures, obtain hemostasis
at the puncture site before sheath removal and observe the site for signs of bleeding
or hematoma formation
- In the STEMI population, the rates of major hemorrhages (defined as requiring
5 or more units of blood for transfusion, or 15% drop in HCT or clinically overt
bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage [ICH]) at 30 days were 2.1% in the LOVENOX®
group and 1.4% in the unfractionated heparin (UFH) group. The rates of ICH at 30
days were 0.8% in the LOVENOX® group and 0.7% in the UFH group. The 30-day rate
of the composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or ICH (a measure of
net clinical benefit) was significantly lower in the LOVENOX® group (10.1%)
compared to the UFH group (12.2%)
- LOVENOX® should be used with caution in patients with bleeding diathesis,
uncontrolled arterial hypertension or a history of recent gastrointestinal ulceration,
diabetic retinopathy, renal dysfunction, or hemorrhage
- Thrombocytopenia can occur with LOVENOX®. In patients with a history of
heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), LOVENOX® should be used with extreme
caution. Thrombocytopenia of any degree should be monitored closely. If the platelet
count falls below 100,000/mm3, LOVENOX® should be discontinued. Cases
of HIT have been observed in clinical practice
- LOVENOX® cannot be used interchangeably with other branded LMWH or UFH,
as they differ in their manufacturing process, molecular weight distribution, anti-Xa
and anti-IIa activities, units, and dosages
- Pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves and their fetuses may
be at increased risk for thromboembolism. Frequent monitoring of anti-Factor Xa
levels and adjusting of dosage may be needed
- LOVENOX® multiple-dose vials contain benzyl alcohol and should be used
with caution in pregnant women and only if clearly needed due to the risk of fatal
"gasping syndrome" in premature neonates
- Periodic complete blood counts, including platelet count, and stool occult
blood tests are recommended during the course of treatment with LOVENOX®
- Most common adverse reactions (>1%) were bleeding, anemia, thrombocytopenia,
elevation of serum aminotransferase, diarrhea, and nausea
For more information, contact your local sanofi-aventis U.S. Representative or call
sanofi-aventis U.S. Medical Information Services
Please see full Prescribing Information, including boxed WARNING.
Prescription LOVENOX® is available in pharmacies.
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